C Convert Long To Bytes

A string literal is already an array of bytes, because a string literal is an array of char, and char and byte mean exactly the same thing in C. Basic types. Strings, bytes, runes and characters in Go. Instant free online tool for word to byte conversion or vice versa. The BitConverter class in. Suffixes: An F is used at the end. Convert Base64 string to Byte Array using C# and VB. ConvertDataTypes is the helpfull website for converting your data types in several programming languages. Convert String offers free and secure online tools for converting strings between formats. The btowc function (“byte to wide character”) converts a valid single byte character c in the initial shift state into the wide character equivalent using the conversion rules from the currently selected locale of the LC_CTYPE category. ) On most 32 bit systems, these correspond to 1 byte, 2 byte, 4 byte, and 8 byte numbers. Note that while a null string parses to zero, String. 6 December 2013 / binary Converting an int to a binary string in C#. L (int) [long long] Convert a C long long to a Python integer object. NET, or we could use the one we wrote ourselves!. Convert Char To Byte. The following declares two byte variables called b and c: byte b, c; The following code creates two byte type variabls and assigns values. How do I convert a long to a byte[] and back in Java? I'm trying convert a long to a byte[] so that I will be able to send the byte[] over a tcp connection. If (unsigned char) c is no valid single byte multibyte character or if c is EOF, the function returns WEOF. Its not required to know how long the number is, nor does the code have to skip over any bytes to find the byte containing the sign information. Range value into a Byte so I can set a Sprites Opaqueness to be a random value. I often find myself scouring the intern. The following example shows converting a Long to Byte array. Long: The methods use the long type. Moreover, double takes a mantissa (value after decimal point) but byte does. Here is the code: [code]#. How do we convert a string to a byte array (byte[]) and the other way around. on average 300 bytes long and I have to convert. If the determined type of an integer literal is int and the value is within the range of the destination type, the value represented by the literal can be implicitly converted to sbyte, byte, short, ushort, uint, or ulong: byte a = 17; byte b = 300; // CS0031: Constant value '300' cannot be converted to a 'byte'. In languages like C and C++, there exist a variety of sizes of integers, char, short, int, long. FillerLogger uses a function to append the data in a text file. It does not have symbols like 10 or 11, so it take letters as symbol from English alphabet. ToInt64(value, fromBase) In all cases, value is a string that holds a number in the base indicated by the fromBase argument, which can only be 2, 8, 10, or 16. Convert list. Use this online image to Byte array tool for converting (monochromatic) bitmaps to data arrays (C++ style). I want to get the integer value from a byte read from a binary file. Dim MyDouble, MyInt MyDouble = 2345. C (str of length 1. Conceptually, for a long long to a char[], the below feels right. Therefore, we can say that data types are used to tell the variables the type of data it can store. decode() decode() has a standard argument. Net convert bytearray to image c# , vb. I need to know how the get the integer value of a byte and vice versa. In this example, you will learn to convert binary number to decimal and decimal number to binary manually by creating a user-defined function. Java layer converts bytes to long type, analyses the data and sends the response, converting long back to 4 bytes data. We could use one of the Convert. You can also learn how to translate binary to decimal and back using hexadecimal as a stepping stone between the two number forms. I need to convert to a long inetger value to byte array in c so that i can access the four byte value of long integer separately. Actually the image which is captured is shown in the form of Base64 string. The BitConverter class has a static overloaded GetBytes method that converts an integer, double, bool, short, long, or other base type value to an array of bytes. ToInt64(ReadOnlySpan) Converts a read-only byte span into a 64-bit signed integer. I thought of writing the following code but I am pretty sure that it wont. Home; Convert byte array to Integer and Long: 2. All help appreciated. I have made. js — fork this on GitHub!. write(my_array, 4); but I don't know how I should do this. As beginner programmer Im not familiar with. c (bytes of length 1) [char] Convert a C int representing a byte to a Python bytes object of length 1. It updates the ByteBuffer with 8 bytes representing the Long. This is the snippet Convert Bytes to the Appropriate Format (Bytes, KB, MB, GB) on FreeVBCode. Use this online image to Byte array tool for converting (monochromatic) bitmaps to data arrays (C++ style). com said: Hi, Could any one tell me how to convert a unsigned long value into string. This is the standard. The C language provides the four basic arithmetic type specifiers char, int, float and double, and the modifiers signed, unsigned, short and long. If you've ever had to write any interop code to use an unmanaged library in your C# application, you know how tricky it can be to get the data types correct. A GUID is broken into 4 parts: an Int32 (4 bytes) two Int16s (2 bytes) and 8 bytes. (web) hex values into a byte array; Basic Question about Byte Array; Problem recreating an image from an rgb byte array; Sending long int over serial (byte array conversion) Create byte array; Witing and reading a byte Array from XML file in C++. We learn about the Function in C Plus Plus _____ - Call by Pointer This method copies the address of an argument into the formal parameter. (char isn't really an integer, but you can use it like an integer and most people use it in C for really small integers. FileStream Read File [C#] This example shows how to safely read file using FileStream in C#. If you don't want to type cast ta double value for an int and just want to use a function for that than there are two such functions to fulfill your requirement. vbCity is a community of VB and. I have written a simple C header for converting the endianness of short integers and long integers. The F stands for float, and. Since then some of you have informed me of a much easier way. ToInt64(ReadOnlySpan) Converts a read-only byte span into a 64-bit signed integer. 5 thoughts on “ Arduino: Difference in “Byte” VS “uint8_t” VS “unsigned char” ” ujjwal sikriwal 7th January 2017 at 6:20 am. Its not required to know how long the number is, nor does the code have to skip over any bytes to find the byte containing the sign information. Net convert bytearray to image c# , vb. NetworkToHostOrder() static members to change bytes order if you work with 'network'-odered addresses: Convert IP to Long and Vice Versa C#. After knowing primitive data types and Java rules of Data Type Casting (Type Conversion), let us cast double to byte. Convert two 8-bit Bytes into a single Int. Besides the minimal bit counts, the C++ Standard guarantees that 1 == sizeof (char) <= sizeof (short) <= sizeof (int) <= sizeof (long) <= sizeof (long long). There are two types of conversion: implicit and explicit. byte is a signed 8-bit type that has a range from -128 to 127. command_stdout. The Digital Dutch Unit Converter - Online conversion of area, currency, density, energy, force, length, mass, power, pressure, speed, temperature, volume and bytes. } and binary file for download, the data format is compatible for all Digole serial modules. The previous blog post explained how slices work in Go, using a number of examples to illustrate the mechanism behind their implementation. encoding (Optional) - if source is a string, the encoding of the string. As so: lValue ---> szValue szValue ---> lValue; szValue being four bytes for the long, and one for a null terminator. I am glad you asked it. It does not have symbols like 10 or 11, so it take letters as symbol from English alphabet. C program to extract bytes from a long integer hexadecimal number. Besides the minimal bit counts, the C++ Standard guarantees that 1 == sizeof (char) <= sizeof (short) <= sizeof (int) <= sizeof (long) <= sizeof (long long). 1305392 where I should have been seeing the above number. For your ease and efficiency, we recommend bookmarking this tool for future use. How do I convert an int to two bytes in C#? Web Master and Programmer · int number = int. n (int) [Py_ssize_t] Convert a C Py_ssize_t to a Python integer. Each value is in a specified interval admissible and relevant at all times. Convert String to Hex (Text to Hex) Online and Save and Share. It serves as a tutorial or guide to the Python language for a beginner audience. To convert larger units to smaller units (i. Example of converting a C++ unsigned int to Java long: C++ layer converts unsigned int values to 4 bytes and sends it to Java layer. Long Integer: A long integer is a data type in computer science whose range is greater (sometimes even double) than that of the standard data type integer. Best Answer: Beware than an int is 4 bytes long *only* on implementations where an int is 4 bytes long. Instant free online tool for gigabyte to byte conversion or vice versa. (value As Long) As Byte() Parameters. It is in range of unsigned long though, which I think is the idea, otherwise conversion to long first would work. im trying to convert my GPS data from long int, to byte* and save them in my microSD card using the FileLogger library. Example of converting a C++ unsigned int to Java long: C++ layer converts unsigned int values to 4 bytes and sends it to Java layer. Its not required to know how long the number is, nor does the code have to skip over any bytes to find the byte containing the sign information. Unicode Converter enables you to easily convert Unicode characters in UTF-16, UTF-8, and UTF-32 formats to their Unicode and decimal representations. A GUID is broken into 4 parts: an Int32 (4 bytes) two Int16s (2 bytes) and 8 bytes. I also changed my method for Int32 to call the other method so that it. Remember, when you store a char data type into numeric types e. The gigabyte [GB] to byte [B] conversion table and conversion steps are also listed. Typecasting in java is performed through typecast operator (datatype). Programming Requirements for the File Transfer and Convert Software Source Code for File Format Conversion Program A sequential data file with variable length records that is a mirror image of a mainframe formatted file must be converted to a Micro Focus or GnuCOBOL formatted file with variable length records. ToInt64(Byte[], Int32) Returns a 64-bit signed integer converted from eight bytes at a specified position in a byte array. Assignment 1 byte value to 4 bytes is done implicitly by the JVM. UrlEncode, UrlDecode, Base64 encode, Base64 decode and MD5 hashing algorithms are among the many free tools available. for that i have tried like this string x = prevImg1. I ran into a mildly interesting problem recently. Turns a string value into a java. How do I convert a long to a byte[] and back in Java? I'm trying convert a long to a byte[] so that I will be able to send the byte[] over a tcp connection. (The old flash version is here. However how do we convert a Byte[] array to String afterward? Simple toString() function like following code is not working property. A GUID is broken into 4 parts: an Int32 (4 bytes) two Int16s (2 bytes) and 8 bytes. When you try to convert a String object to Byte Array, you still have a character set and encoding and it depends on the encoding of your string whether its is in ASCII or UTF8. That's an out of the box question. It updates the ByteBuffer with 8 bytes representing the Long. Convert String offers free and secure online tools for converting strings between formats. Any tips would be appreciated. The logic behind to implement this program - separate both character that a hexadecimal value contains, and get their integer values and then multiply with 16 (as hexadecimal value's base is 16) and then add second value, simply you. The C language provides the four basic arithmetic type specifiers char, int, float and double, and the modifiers signed, unsigned, short and long. Suggestion: If it is important to you for integer types to have the same size on all Intel platforms, then consider replacing "long" by either "int" or "long long". Long: The methods use the long type. The decimal data type has built-in methods for converting, although they are somewhat obscure. As all know that the length of the long value is 64 bit , it means in the JVM ,the long value use 8 bytes array. encoding (Optional) - if source is a string, the encoding of the string. In languages like C and C++, there exist a variety of sizes of integers, char, short, int, long. Convert Char To Byte. Find anything that can be improved? Suggest corrections and new documentation via GitHub. A string literal is already an array of bytes, because a string literal is an array of char, and char and byte mean exactly the same thing in C. NET methods to convert types to another so I kindly ask help with following problem. 5 GB to byte = 5368709120 byte. Net C# code snippet convert external file to byte array. and i want to make the long value to byte[] and byte[] to long. I often find myself scouring the intern. We learn about the Function in C Plus Plus _____ - Call by Pointer This method copies the address of an argument into the formal parameter. Thanks Paul [ps1]. They are again arithmetic types and they are used to define variables that. vbCity is a community of VB and. Convert int to long in C#. ToInt16(buffer, 3). I'm shifting left, then AND-ing to limit to the right:. Use this online image to Byte array tool for converting (monochromatic) bitmaps to data arrays (C++ style). String to Hexadecimal. I ran into a mildly interesting problem recently. This appendix contains the following tables used to determine the correct parameter type mappings. I've been trying to send a long integer from an Arduino to my C++ program via the serial port. I think that is my shifts, but I'm not certain. C Program To Convert Hexadecimal To Decimal Number. NET Framework is provides functionality to convert base data types to an array of bytes, and an array of bytes to base data types. encoding (Optional) - if source is a string, the encoding of the string. Use a typecasting technique where you store the value you want to convert into a variable then use the below syntax where b1 is variable where result would be stored and d1 is variable in which you want your data to be converted byte b1 = (byte) d. I think float would work too since it's also 4 bytes. FillerLogger uses a function to append the data in a text file. 01234ABC convert to 0x01, 0x23, 0x4A, 0xBC. ImageUrl; // Convert Base64 String to byte[] byte[] imageBytes = Convert. byte -> short -> int -> long -> float -> double. NetworkToHostOrder() static members to change bytes order if you work with 'network'-odered addresses: Convert IP to Long and Vice Versa C#. But if we look closely, they are just arbitrary arrays of bits, the only difference between t. ConvertDataTypes. vbCity is a community of VB and. For example for the number 0, the binary form is 00000000, there are. I also want to convert the integer value back into a byte value for write. ConvertDataTypes is the helpfull website for converting your data types in several programming languages. Below I have code where the current byte is read into the variable 'byte". It is in range of unsigned long though, which I think is the idea, otherwise conversion to long first would work. Unix Socket - Network Byte Orders - Unfortunately, not all computers store the bytes that comprise a multibyte value in the same order. I need to convert these 4 bytes into a single. I need to convert to a long inetger value to byte array in c so that i can access the four byte value of long integer separately. C# is very good at reading files for the byte count. Convert an IP Address from Decimal to Binary Form www. This can be used to change between little-endian and big-endian. This book will teach you to use Python version 3. Daniel consults to leading. In the above program, we have a byte array named bytes. I would like to elaborate the problem, long int testval = 3840 ; The binary value of the above long value (3840)is 0000 0000 // first byte 0000 0000 // second byte. but integer equal to (4 bytes == 32. The following table lists the permissible combinations to specify a large set of storage size-specific declarations. Net Visual Basic code snippet convert external file to byte array. Partially for my own understanding, I'm trying to figure out the bitwise method of doing so. Convert bytes to a Python string. c (bytes of length 1) [char] Convert a C int representing a byte to a Python bytes object of length 1. The good part about the method taking a byte[] parameter is that part of the work is already done for you – getting the byte representation of your data. Convert two 8-bit Bytes into a single Int. I suggest you review variable declaration for Arduino. To use this function simply provide file path to external file. I think that is my shifts, but I'm not certain. 5 thoughts on “ Arduino: Difference in “Byte” VS “uint8_t” VS “unsigned char” ” ujjwal sikriwal 7th January 2017 at 6:20 am. I think float would work too since it's also 4 bytes. MaxValue;//you can extract short into two bytes. A standard way to convert individual bytes to a number is to use bit shifts and bitwise OR, as shown in chrisl's answer. TimeSpan and long are the same number of bytes. GetBytes("foo"); …. In this chapter you will learn: How to convert an integer value to byte, double, float, int, long and short; How to decode a string and return an integer value. Loading Unsubscribe from PhoenixCoder? How To Convert pdf to word without software - Duration: 9:04. We examine TimeSpan and its representation. Long integer. Hardware is built to handle the bytes in a particular order, and as long as compatible hardware reads the bytes in the same order, things are fine. ConvertDataTypes is the helpfull website for converting your data types in several programming languages. K (int) [unsigned long long] Convert a C unsigned long long to a Python integer object. 1 public static string ConvertToString( byte [] bytes. It's commonly used for measuring the amount of data that is transferred in a second between two telecommunication points. Below I have code where the current byte is read into the variable 'byte". If you send a long text message containing only characters that are part of the GSM 03. I want to ask how to convert from long to short since i have some parameter problem with it? The problem is like below : short *speech; // Holds length of any given sample This is a pointer that has not been initialised. convert struct to byte Array everyone doing embedded coding should have switched over (long ago) to types that explicitly indicate the real size of variables. CLng Function. That's all guys, now you know how to convert a Java char or String to their ASCII values. A column uses one length byte if values require no more than 255 bytes, two length bytes if values may require more than 255 bytes. This is different from how Java handles numeric conversions. Table A-1, "Mapping of Oracle Native Data Type to. Casting and Converting Objects and Primitive Types. By: IncludeHelp On 08 DEC 2016 Here, we will learn how to extract bytes from a long integer number (or convert hexadecimal long integer value into byte array)?. I am reading data from a buffer and trying to convert the byte[] to a long value that is then displayed as text. I have these two functions to convert one long to a 8 byte array and to convert a byte array to a long, but somethings isn't right. Binary to Decimal to Hexadecimal Converter Can convert negatives and fractional parts too. byte_string is a member type, defined as an alias of basic_string,Byte_alloc> (where Byte_alloc is the fourth template parameter of wstring_convert). It is in range of unsigned long though, which I think is the idea, otherwise conversion to long first would work. At first, glance converting the datatype (System. Convert bytes to a Python string. The JIT will change x / 2 to x >> 1 anyhow if it can prove that x >= 0 (easy here since we're working with array lengths - for negative numbers it's not the same as truncating division!) - at least HotSpot c2 does. please provide me the program with explanation. Bit to byte conversion : How you can easily convert between bits and bytes without needing a hex/binary calculator and how to use hexadecimal for working with binary numbers. By creating new String Object and assign byte[] to it. Instant free online tool for gigabyte to byte conversion or vice versa. NET methods to convert types to another so I kindly ask help with following problem. This example uses the CInt function to convert a value to an Integer. errors (Optional) - if source is a string, the action to take when the encoding conversion fails (Read more: String encoding) The source parameter can be used to initialize the byte array in the following ways:. I need to convert a Random. ToInt64(value, fromBase) In all cases, value is a string that holds a number in the base indicated by the fromBase argument, which can only be 2, 8, 10, or 16. To me it makes sense. String to Hexadecimal. (this will convert the signed integer to an unsigned integer of same magnitude). We need to prepare hex string before could convert hex to a byte array and vice versa, and I noticed many forum create a small function to do the conversion from string to hex and convert a string to byte. Encoded string will appear in the box below, where you can easily copy it from. On the AVR-based Arduinos, an int is 16 bits long. String to Hexadecimal. Loading Unsubscribe from PhoenixCoder? How To Convert pdf to word without software - Duration: 9:04. I need to convert to a long inetger value to byte array in c so that i can access the four byte value of long integer separately. The btowc function (“byte to wide character”) converts a valid single byte character c in the initial shift state into the wide character equivalent using the conversion rules from the currently selected locale of the LC_CTYPE category. Each value is in a specified interval admissible and relevant at all times. So when you pass in a byte array, it treats the first three sections as big-endian byte arrays as follows:. Binary to Decimal to Hexadecimal Converter Can convert negatives and fractional parts too. If the UNICODE preprocessor symbol is defined, this compiles as a type that holds 16-bit wide characters, terminated with a 16-bit NUL (CStringW); if the UNICODE preprocessor symbol is undefined, this compiles as a type that holds 8-bit characters, terminated with an 8-bit NUL (CStringA). Byte, uint8_t and unsigned char, they are basically the same thing in Arduino. Just allocate a byte buffer of at least 8 bytes, set the order to big endian, put in the long value, set the order to little endian, reset the position to zero, and get the long value back from the buffer. Long Integer: A long integer is a data type in computer science whose range is greater (sometimes even double) than that of the standard data type integer. Home » Code Snippets » C/C++ Code Snippets. Reverse Bytes (Little/Big Endian) [C#] This example shows how to reverse byte order in integer numbers. All help appreciated. The byte takes 1 byte of memory and int takes 4 bytes of memory. To me it makes sense. This is different from how Java handles numeric conversions. For Python version 3. NET methods to convert types to another so I kindly ask help with following problem. Suffixes: An F is used at the end. By creating new String Object and assign byte[] to it. I think float would work too since it's also 4 bytes. Its not required to know how long the number is, nor does the code have to skip over any bytes to find the byte containing the sign information. convert string to byte array; Convert Byte() <-> String; How to convert byte() to string, and from string back to byte() How to Convert Byte Array to Int32 (Big-endian) Please Help me Convert This VB60 Code; Convert from byte array to string; Convert Delphi record structure to C Sharp; convert form byte[4] to Int32 while retaining the binary. The word to byte [B] conversion table and conversion steps are also listed. Loading Unsubscribe from PhoenixCoder? How To Convert pdf to word without software - Duration: 9:04. NET developers joined together with a common goal: to learn, teach, and have fun programming. c (bytes of length 1) [char] Convert a C int representing a byte to a Python bytes object of length 1. It is required to be at least 32 bits, and may or may not be larger than a standard integer. It does not have symbols like 10 or 11, so it take letters as symbol from English alphabet. byte type variables are useful when working with a stream of data from a network or file. it's true that I don't see why you'd desperately want to convert the long into an int when it's going to be truncated. C (str of length 1. The previous blog post explained how slices work in Go, using a number of examples to illustrate the mechanism behind their implementation. A list of bytes (numbers between 0 and 256) can be converted into a bytearray with the constructor. What is a Hexadecimal?. Remember, when you store a char data type into numeric types e. Accuracy is "unlimited" between binary and hexadecimal (and vice versa), and is up to 20 digits for decimals. (value As Long) As Byte() Parameters. encode("hex"), 16). Returns an unsigned long with the integer value that has the same bits set as the bitset. I have these two functions to convert one long to a 8 byte array and to convert a byte array to a long, but somethings isn't right. Such a function is useful when you need to backup data from your application on paper, such as an. On the other side I want to take that byte[] and convert it back into a double. Java Convert int to long. The following table lists the permissible combinations to specify a large set of storage size-specific declarations. From the simplest mailing list to the most complex financial data, we have the tools to properly convert and Q. C (str of length 1. NET Framework has a built in overload of Convert. I have written a simple C header for converting the endianness of short integers and long integers. Basic types. Let us learn how to convert hexadecimal to decimal number in C programming language. It uses the GCC macro __BYTE_ORDER__ to check the system's byte order and define the macros based. Convert byte array to Integer and Long : Data Type Conversion « Data Type « Java Tutorial. Actually the image which is captured is shown in the form of Base64 string. All languages I have seen so far have multiple builtin data types (int, double, float, char, long). Converting Int to Byte. Have you ever wanted to simply typecast a byte array to a data structure and then use that data structure like you used to be able to do in C? Well, C# provides a facility to accomplish this. Bytes objects are immutable sequences of single bytes [1] in the range between o and 255 (inclusive) [2]. The gigabyte [GB] to byte [B] conversion table and conversion steps are also listed. Convert any type to byte array. NET Color object to a string such as #F782AB. In this tutorial, we will show you how to convert hex to a byte array and vice verse in vb. Long is a POD type not a class so it has no methods. So when you pass in a byte array, it treats the first three sections as big-endian byte arrays as follows:. Little and Big Endian Endianess. js — fork this on GitHub!. I have it working for byte, short, int and float but cannot get the long to work. I would like to elaborate the problem, long int testval = 3840 ; The binary value of the above long value (3840)is 0000 0000 // first byte 0000 0000 // second byte. I'd like to convert a long to an array of chars and back. I want to get the integer value from a byte read from a binary file. Unix Socket - Network Byte Orders - Unfortunately, not all computers store the bytes that comprise a multibyte value in the same order. Before converting the packed-decimal fields it should be determined if a conversion is necessary. To me it makes sense. ToInt64(value, fromBase) In all cases, value is a string that holds a number in the base indicated by the fromBase argument, which can only be 2, 8, 10, or 16. For your ease and efficiency, we recommend bookmarking this tool for future use. This example uses the CInt function to convert a value to an Integer. ToString() for short and similar conversions for the others but cannot make the long work. How can one convert a hexadecimal string to byte. The above String to Hex Converter is super easy to use. Casting and Converting Objects and Primitive Types. errors (Optional) - if source is a string, the action to take when the encoding conversion fails (Read more: String encoding) The source parameter can be used to initialize the byte array in the following ways:. Unlike int or long, you can easily see the individual bytes of a C-style string, one byte at a time. C program to extract bytes from a long integer hexadecimal number. Depending on the programming language and the computer machine processor, the size of the long integer will vary. Bytes objects are immutable sequences of single bytes [1] in the range between o and 255 (inclusive) [2]. By: IncludeHelp On 08 DEC 2016 Here, we will learn how to extract bytes from a long integer number (or convert hexadecimal long integer value into byte array)?. CString: A string data type. I was trying to pass a byte[] and it was coming up null everytime on the other end. Converts a number from one measurement system to another. take a number of gigabytes and convert it down in to megabytes, kilobytes, or bytes) you simply multiply the original number by 1,024 for each unit. In "Big Endian" form, since the high-order byte comes first, the code can test whether the number is positive or negative by looking at the byte at offset zero. Convert ulong to byte in C#. convert byte() to xml document Hello all, I am receiving an xml file from my server over a network stream and then saving it in a byte( ). C# Memory Pinning: Convert a byte array to a data structure. We also convert kilobytes to megabytes. A string literal is already an array of bytes, because a string literal is an array of char, and char and byte mean exactly the same thing in C. com Convert data types programming in one click !. Conceptually, for a long long to a char[], the below feels right. It uses a base of 16. C++ compiles C programs but adds object oriented (OO) features (classes, inheritance, polymorphism), templates (generic functions and classes), function and operator overloading, namespaces (packages), exception handling, a library of standard data structures (string, vector, map. The most 7-bit characters that can be packed into 1072 bits is 153.